Agrivoltaics 101

Agrivoltaics   =   Solar Panels    +    Agriculture

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Photo: NREL

The Problem

Most solar installations are developed with single seed turf or bare ground beneath the panels. The grass seed is inexpensive and can be easily managed by application of pesticides and occasional mowing. This type of vegetation management under panels can lead to decreased water retention, less soil stability, reduced carbon sequestration, and loss of habitat for pollinators, birds, and wildlife.

Since the life of a regular solar panel can be 25 or more years, the solar developments installed in the early 2020s will likely occupy the land until the 2040s and 2050s.

The decisions we make today regarding vegetation choice beneath solar panels will influence the health of hundreds of thousands of acres of land.

Image by Werner Slocum/NREL

A Solution

There are alternatives to turf and bare ground under solar panels. The co-location of solar and beneficial agriculture is referred to “agrivoltaics.”

Types of Agrivoltaics

Flowers Under Solar Panels
Sheep Grazing Under Solar Panels
Tractor Under Solar Panels

Photo: Sun'Agri

Photo: ASGA

Photo: Fresh Energy

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Benefits of Agrivoltaics

Water Conservation

Less water is needed for some plants to produce the same yield or more. Native plantings improve water retention resulting in less water runoff.

Improved Soil

Plant biodiversity and native plants with deep roots stabilize soils and increase carbon sequestration.

Higher Crop Yields

Some plants produce a larger yields in arid regions when grown under panels.

Crop Protection

Crops are better protected from high winds and hail, reducing risk of crop destruction.

Increased Habitat

Planting native plants supports local ecosystems, encouraging insects, birds and wildlife to use the location.

Economic Opportunity

Revenues from land leases, electricity sales and/or specialty ‘solar crop’ marketing strategies can help support farming families.

Agrivoltaic Origins

Although a novel concept in the United States, agrivoltaic practices have been employed throughout other parts of the world. The concept of agrivoltaics started in Japan which now has more than 1,000 agrivoltaic installations. Germany and France are other leaders in the industry and India and China are starting to adopt the practice as well. The United States is just beginning to develop agrivoltaic practices.

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Photo: Creative Commons

Agrivoltaics in Colorado

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Photo: CSU

Colorado State University, in partnership with Sandbox Solar of Fort Collins, has been researching the effects of small scale solar panels on plants since 2018.

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Photo: Werner Slocum/ NREL

 A five acre 1.2 MW community solar garden south of Longmont working with the University of Arizona, Colorado State University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Sprout City Farms to create research plots.

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Photo: Boulder Weekly

In 2019, the City of Fort Collins, Namaste, and Solaris Energy partnered to create a 1MW pollinator friendly solar installation. The project will plant “hyper-local” native seed mixes.

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Photo: Namaste Solar

Twelve sheep graze this 10MW, 55 acre solar array, outside of Boulder as an environmentally friendly way of managing the vegetation growth.

Learn More

Check out the National Center for Appropriate Technology's "AgriSolar Clearninghouse" to discover agrivoltaic photos, research papers, and more.